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# If end to end connection is done at a network or IP level, and if there are N hosts, then what is the number of keys required?

belongs to collection: CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY - MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION CODES AND KEY MANAGEMENT MCQ

##### CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY - MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION CODES AND KEY MANAGEMENT MCQ

- Which figure implements confidentiality and authentication?
- Which figure implements confidentiality, authentication and signature?
- The below figure implements authentication and signature only?
- The below figure represents internal error control
- The following figure has authentication tied to the plain text-
- What does the following figure represent?
- What does the below figure represent?
- Another name for Message authentication codes is
- For a 150-bit message and a 10-bit MAC, how many values are the MAC value dependent on?
- Confidentiality can only be provided if we perform message encryption before the MAC generation
- MACs are also called
- For a 100 bit key and a 32 bit tag, how many possible keys can be produced in the 3rd round?
- MAC is a
- For an n-bit tag and a k-bit key, the level of effort required for brute force attack on a MAC algorithm is
- Cryptographic hash functions execute faster in software than block ciphers
- What is the value of ipad in the HMAC structure?
- What is the value of opad in the HMAC structure?
- Which cryptographic algorithm is used in CMAC?
- In CMAC, which scenario is a different key K2 is used instead of K1?
- Which Authentication Encryption approach is taken by the SSL/TLS protocol?
- Which Authentication Encryption approach is taken by the IPSec protocol?
- Which Authentication Encryption approach is taken by the SSH protocol?
- Hashing followed by encryption (H→E) is used by which algorithm?
- Which of the following terms is not an input to the CCM encryption?
- How many passes through the plaintext does the CCM require to generate the MAC value?
- In GCM, we define S as S = GHASH(A||0^v||C||0^u||[len(A)]||[len(C)]). What is v defined as?
- When the length of the IV is not 96, then
- Which is not true for Key-Wrapping?
- What is the value of A (0)?
- The key Wrapping Algorithm provides confidentiality and data integrity
- Which of the following is not true for whirlpool hashing function?
- The expected workload of generating a collision is of the order of ____________ executions of Whirlpool
- Given a message, the expected workload of finding a message that hashes to that value is of the order ____________
- Given a message and its n-bit hash result, the expected workload of finding a message that hashes to the same value is of the order _______________
- The message is padded to
- The length of the message is appended to the message. What is the size of this length?
- The hash matrix is of the size
- The 8 × 8 hash matrix holds values of size
- The hash matrix of 8 × 8 is preferred over a 16 × 4 matrix because
- How many rounds are there in one Whirlpool Iteration?
- Which one of these is not a Whirlpool function?
- What is the correct order of operation within each round of the Whirlpool algorithm?
- What is the size of the s-box table/matrix in Whirlpool?
- The S-box implements linear mapping thus providing diffusion
- Another name for the Whirlpool key is
- How many round constants (RCs) are required in Whirlpool?
- The Round Constant is dependent on the s-box values
- The Round Constant is given by S[8(r-1)+j]. What are the limits of ‘r’?
- When the Round Constant is given by S[8(r-1)+j]. What are the limits of ‘i’ and ‘j’?
- The 7th row in the 8 × 8 matrix undergoes a ___________ shift
- How many XOR gate operations are involved in the S-box permutation?
- Which round provides linear diffusion in the Whirlpool Algorithm?
- Mix Row functions operate on the 8 × 8 matrix (A) to form the new matrix. The operation can be considered to be B = AC. The matrix C is formed by
- Which of the following hexadecimal values are not present in the matrix C of the Mix Rows function?
- There’s no known successful attacks made against Whirlpool
- Which hash algorithm is the most hardware intensive among the following?
- Which algorithm has the most execution latency?
- Which among the following has not been broken yet( still collision free)?
- Before the first round of the Whirlpool algorithm, which is the operation that takes place?
- How many rounds does the Whirlpool algorithm undergo?
- Each round uses a different key in the algorithm
- What is the size of the key in the algorithm?
- How many add round key functions are present in the Whirlpool algorithm?
- If end to end connection is done at a network or IP level, and if there are N hosts, then what is the number of keys required?
- For 1000 nodes in IP level, how many keys would be required?
- Communication between end systems is encrypted using a key, often known as
- Session keys are transmitted after being encrypted by
- For a network with N nodes, how many master keys are present?
- PDU stands for
- SSM stands for
- Which is the last step in establishing a connection between hosts using the SSM?
- Larger networks would prefer a full decentralization
- Which of these is not a type of session key?
- Which session key is used for electronic funds transfer and point of sale applications?
- Sometimes a simple tag is introduced along with the session key. This tag has 8 bits. Which of the following options is wrong?
- Hash Value = H = h(CV) Key Input = Km XOR H Ciphertext = E([Km XOR H],Ks) What is CV here?
- Which is the correct representation for session key recovery for the plain text?
- Which of the following is required to find the session key?
- “Meet in the middle attack” and “man in the middle attack” are the same
- “Meet in the middle attack” is an attack
- Public key encryption/decryption is not preferred because
- Which one of the following is not a public key distribution means?
- What is the PGP stand for?
- PGP makes use of which cryptographic algorithm?
- USENET is related to which of the following Public Key distribution schemes?
- Which of the following public key distribution systems is most secure?
- Which systems use a timestamp?
- Which of these systems use timestamps as an expiration date?
- Which system uses a trusted third party interface?
- Publicly Available directory is more secure than which other system?
- Extensions were added in which version?
- The subject unique identifier of the X.509 certificates was added in which version?
- Which of the following is not an element/field of the X.509 certificates?
- Suppose that A has obtained a certificate from certification authority X1 and B has obtained certificate authority from CA X2. A can use a chain of certificates to obtain B’s public key. In notation of X.509, this chain is represented in the correct order as –
- Certificates generated by X that are the certificates of other CAs are Reverse Certificates
- It is desirable to revoke a certificate before it expires because
- CRL stands for
- Which of the following is not a part of an Extension?
- The criticality indicator indicates whether an extension can be safely ignored
- “Conveys any desired X.500 directory attribute values for the subject of this certificate
- How many handshake rounds are required in the Public-Key Distribution Scenario?
- A total of seven messages are required in the Public-Key distribution scenario. However, the initial five messages need to be used only infrequently because both A and B can save the other’s public key for future – a technique known as ____
- X.509 certificate recommends which cryptographic algorithm?
- The issuer unique identifier of the X.509 certificates was added in which version?
- The period of validity consists of the date on which the certificate expires
- Certificate extensions fall into 3 categories. Which one of the following is not a Certificate extensions category?
- How many functions are involved in the PKIX architectural model?
- CMP stands for
- CMS stands for

(a).N(N-1)/2

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